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The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code: A Crucial Respite for Companies in Dire Straits

Insolvency Law Firm In the ever-evolving global economic landscape, enterprises often grapple with monetary challenges stemming from multifarious factors such as market volatility, shifting consumer predilections, or unforeseen exigencies. The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) in India, promulgated in 2016, has transpired as a paradigm shift for financially beleaguered businesses. This blog post will scrutinize the role of the IBC in facilitating businesses to restructure their debts and attain a new lease on life, while concurrently safeguarding the interests of creditors and employees.

The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code: A Synopsis

The IBC is a comprehensive and unified statute designed to streamline the process of insolvency resolution and bankruptcy in India. It offers a time-bound and transparent framework for addressing corporate distress, ensuring that businesses can either recuperate from their fiscal tribulations or cease their operations in an orderly fashion. The IBC also establishes the National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) and the National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT) as the preeminent adjudicating authorities for insolvency and bankruptcy proceedings. The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) of India is based on the principles of a modern insolvency and bankruptcy framework, taking into account global best practices and the specific needs of the Indian economy. The IBC was formulated after studying the insolvency laws and practices of various countries, including the United States, the United Kingdom, and other jurisdictions with well-developed insolvency frameworks.

Salient Features of the IBC:

1. Corporate Insolvency Resolution Process (CIRP): The CIRP is a time-bound (180 days, extendable up to 270 days) procedure that aspires to resuscitate a company in financial distress. The process commences when a financial or operational creditor, or the company itself, files a petition with the NCLT. Upon acceptance of the application, a moratorium is imposed on all legal proceedings against the company. A Resolution Professional (RP) is appointed to oversee its affairs and devise a resolution plan in collaboration with the Committee of Creditors (CoC).

2. Resolution Plan: The resolution plan is a proposal delineating the strategy to revive the company or liquidate its assets to repay its debts. The CoC, comprising the company's financial creditors, evaluates the plan and ratifies it with a 66% majority vote. If the plan is sanctioned by the NCLT, it becomes obligatory for all stakeholders, and the company can initiate its restructuring process.

3. Liquidation: If the CIRP fails to generate a viable resolution plan within the stipulated time frame, the company may be liquidated. The RP is responsible for divesting the company's assets and disbursing the proceeds among its creditors in accordance with the precedence established by the IBC.

4. Fast-Track Insolvency Resolution Process: The IBC furnishes a fast-track insolvency resolution process for diminutive companies, start-ups, and unlisted companies with aggregate assets below a specified threshold. This process must be culminated within 90 days, extendable up to an additional 45 days.

Safeguarding the Interests of Creditors and Employees

The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) provides a balanced and equitable approach to safeguarding the interests of both creditors and employees during the insolvency resolution process. This is achieved through the involvement of creditors in decision-making and the prioritization of employees' claims during asset distribution in case of liquidation. 

The IBC establishes the Committee of Creditors (CoC) as a critical decision-making body during the Corporate Insolvency Resolution Process (CIRP). The CoC is primarily composed of financial creditors of the distressed company. By involving the creditors in the resolution process, the IBC ensures that their interests are taken into account when determining the future course of action for the debtor company. The CoC plays a significant role in the following aspects of the CIRP:
   a. To appoint and oversee the Resolution Professional (RP), who manages the debtor company's operations during the CIRP.
   b. To review and approve the resolution plan, which outlines the strategy for reviving the company or liquidating its assets to repay debts.
   c. To Decide on matters related to the debtor company's operations and finances during the CIRP.
   d. To vote on key decisions, such as the approval of the resolution plan, an extension of the CIRP timeline, or the initiation of the liquidation process.

If the insolvency resolution process fails to yield a viable resolution plan within the stipulated time frame, the debtor company may be liquidated. In such cases, the IBC provides a specific order of priority, known as the "waterfall mechanism," for the distribution of liquidation proceeds among various claimants, including employees. As per the IBC, employees' outstanding payments (such as salaries, wages, and other benefits) are given high priority in the waterfall mechanism. Employees' claims rank above unsecured financial creditors and government dues, ensuring that they receive their outstanding payments before other claimants in case of liquidation. This prioritization of employees' claims reflects the IBC's intent to protect the interests of workers, who are often among the most vulnerable stakeholders in the insolvency process. By preserving the rights of creditors and employees, the IBC ensures that the insolvency resolution process is fair and equitable for all parties involved.


The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code has emerged as an indispensable lifeline for struggling businesses in India. By offering a time-bound and transparent framework for insolvency resolution, the IBC enables businesses to either surmount their financial predicaments or wind up their operations in an orderly manner. Furthermore, the IBC safeguards the interests of creditors and employees, ensuring they receive equitable treatment in the resolution process.

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